A taxonomic revision of Iris subser. Sibiricae is provided based on morphological and molecular analyses and the study of protologues and original material. Two to three species have been recognized in this subseries by botanists. To address the question of species delimitations and relationships within this group, we analyzed four non-coding regions of plastid DNA (trnS–trnG, trnL–trnF, rps4–trnSGGA, and psbA–trnH) for samples from 26 localities across the distribution ranges of two currently recognized species, I. sanguinea and I. sibirica. Variance analysis, based on nine characters, revealed no separation between taxa. Moreover, no morphological character could be used to define clear boundaries between taxa. Our results strongly support that I. subser. Sibiricae is monotypic and comprises only I. sibirica, instead of two or three species. Iris sibirica is morphologically variable and one of the most widespread Eurasian species of Iridaceae. Previously accepted taxa, I. sanguinea and I. typhifolia, are synonymised with I. sibirica and also two names, I. orientalis and I. sibirica var. haematophylla, which are typified here, are placed in the synonymy of I. sibirica. Information on the distribution of I. sibirica and the main features used to distinguish between I. sibirica and I. subser. Chrysographes species are provided.
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