Biocultural collections document human–nature interactions through plant and animal-based artifacts, raw materials, herbarium voucher collections, and varied forms of documentation. They form a valuable resource for biocultural conservation, preserving and enhancing traditional knowledge, livelihoods, and the environment. They should be used through participatory methods that allow institutional researchers and local communities to share data on ethnobiological collections and artifacts, enabling new knowledge of plants and people from multiple perspectives. Methods are demonstrated through a case study of historic ethnobotanical specimens collected by Richard Spruce in the northwest Amazon.
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