At least a dozen species of aphids (Insecta, Hemiptera) of non-native origin have expanded their range in Europe, however the importance of botanic gardens in this phenomenon has not been studied previously in detail. As a case study, investigations on the species composition and host range of Aphidomorpha in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, United Kingdom, were conducted over a period of twelve days, in June 2017. The inventory study was carried out in the collection of living plants, both in the gardens and the glasshouses and nurseries. In total, 94 taxa of Aphidomorpha are identified (one phylloxerid, one adelgid and 92 species of aphids). 20 species are regarded as alien to the European aphid fauna and among them nine are believed to be the first published records for Kew. 20 species are regarded as serious pests, capable of virus transmission. The list of host plants includes 155 taxa from 89 genera and 49 families. Ericolophium holsti (Takahashi), species of Asiatic origin associated with Rhododendron spp., was found for the first time in the field in the UK. Changes in the species composition of the aphid fauna in reference to the Eastop’s studies in 1960s were discussed.
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