The orchid tribe Tropidieae comprises three genera, Tropidia, Corymborkis and Kalimantanorchis. There are three fully mycoheterotrophic species within Tropidieae: Tropidia saprophytica, T. connata and Kalimantanorchis nagamasui. A previous phylogenetic study of K. nagamasui, based only on plastid matK data, placed K. nagamasui outside the clade of Tropidia and Corymborkis without support. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analyses using a nuclear ribosomal DNA spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), a low-copy nuclear coding gene (Xdh) and a mitochondrial intron (nad1b-c intron) to study the phylogenetic relationships within Tropidieae. We included six photosynthetic and all three fully mycoheterotrophic Tropidieae species. The resulting phylogenetic trees placed these fully mycoheterotrophic species inside the Tropidia clade with high support. In our trees, these three species do not form a monophyletic group together, because the photosynthetic T. graminea is nested amongst them. Our results also suggest that the loss of photosynthetic ability occurred at least twice in Tropidia.
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