White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is an annual crop cultivated for its protein-rich seeds. It is adapted to poor soils due to the production of cluster roots, which are made of dozens of determinate lateral roots that drastically improve soil exploration and nutrient acquisition (mostly phosphate). Using long-read sequencing technologies, we provide a high-quality genome sequence of a cultivated accession of white lupin (2n = 50, 451 Mb), as well as de novo assemblies of a landrace and a wild relative. We describe a modern accession displaying increased soil exploration capacity through early establishment of lateral and cluster roots. We also show how seed quality may have been impacted by domestication in term of protein profiles and alkaloid content. The availability of a high-quality genome assembly together with companion genomic and transcriptomic resources will enable the development of modern breeding strategies to increase and stabilize white lupin yield.
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