Aloe lomatophylloides (Xanthorrhoeaceae) is a medicinal plant endemic to Rodrigues Island, an islet 108 km2 north east of Mauritius. Only a few individuals can be found in the natural reserves of Rodrigues Island. Phytochemical screening results have indicated that the plant contains anthraquinones and flavonoids common to other Aloes with the exception of aloesin and 2″-O-trans-p-coumaroylaloenin. The medicinal uses of A. lomatophylloides have been validated through antioxidant, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective assays. Ex situ reintroduction has been possible through the use of tissue culture techniques. A. lomatophylloides has not been studied at a molecular level. The updated research findings with respect to the phytochemistry, biological attributes, and botany of A. lomatophylloides have been documented in this chapter.
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