Mischogyne (Annonaceae, tribe Monodoreae) is a genus of small- to medium-sized tropical trees and shrubs. It is characterised by a combination of: (1) stamens and carpels on a more or less extended torus; (2) carpels divergent from each other at the apex of the torus above the anthers; (3) anthers linear and anther connectives not expanded above the thecae; (4) inflorescences extra-axillary (or sometimes terminal in M. michelioides) with usually solitary flowers; (5) petals reflexed at anthesis (except M. michelioides), and (6) prominent reticulate tertiary veins. The genus is found in the lowland tropical rainforests of Africa with annual precipitation of 1000 – 4000 mm and in the dry coastal foothills of Angola. Five species and one variety of Mischogyne are recognised. One newly discovered species from the Eastern Arc Mountains, M. iddii, is described. The variety M. elliotiana var. glabra is reduced into synonymy with M. elliotiana var. elliotiana. Mischogyne elliotiana var. gabonensis is raised to species level as M. gabonensis. Specimens from the Congo are recognised as a new species, M. congensis. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as an identification key and detailed species descriptions. An unusual distribution pattern for the genus is discussed: dry coastal Angola as well as West, Central and East African wet forest.
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