This chapter describes the botanical and phytochemical profiles of Aloe tormentorii (Xanthorrhoeaceae), a severely threatened endemic medicinal plant from the Mauritius Islands. Leaf extracts are rich in anthraquinones, flavonoids including 4-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid (not present in other Mascarene Aloes). A. tormentorii leaf extracts have been validated for their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and neuroprotective attributes. In vitro tissue culture techniques have been successfully applied to micropropagate A. tormentorii and plantlets are now growing in several regions of the Island. The genetic profile of this species has been established by sequencing nuclear and chloroplasts genes.
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