Medicinal and aromatic plants are fundamental to the lives of many people in Pakistan, and numerous species are declining in the wild. In this study, a framework to understand opportunities for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in Pakistan was trialed using eight species as case studies. This framework highlights in situ and ex situ opportunities through understanding a specie’s conservation status, sociocultural value, and ability to effectively be stored in a seed bank. Two species, Atropa acuminata and Ephedra gerardiana, are newly identified as Vulnerable inder IUCN Red List criteria. The major threat to these species is overexploitation, and this is influenced by sociocultural patterns that require attention. I propose that the areas where a threatened species is valued are those that should be selected for conservation efforts, because they are the areas that will continue to be exploited if no action is taken. In general, seed banking presents an effective form of ex situ conservation. Improved germination conditions were discovered for some of these species, while opportunities for research are presented for others.
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