A new species, Hyptidendron roseum, from the Chapada dos Veadeiros region, Goiás state, is described and illustrated. It can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of inflorescences composed of a unilateral cymose structures, sessile to subsessile leaves, a ring of trichomes in the throat of the calyx tube, and a dense indumentum of white uniseriate trichomes covering much of the plant. The new species is compared with similar species such as H. unilaterale and H. albidum. New specimens of another species, H. unilaterale, formerly known only from the type, were identified in herbaria and collected in the field. Photos in vivo of this species are provided for the first time, accompanying a full description and an illustration. We assess its conservation status and comment on its distribution, ecological aspects, and identification. © 2018, The New York Botanical Garden.
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