DNA sequence data, macro-morphological evidence and pollen analysis are used to clarify the phylogenetic placement of two African species of Acanthaceae: Schaueria populifolia C.B.Clarke and Rhinacanthus ndorensis Schweinf. The combined data demonstrate that these species are only distantly related to the genera in which they are currently placed and provide strong support for recognition of new genera to accommodate them. Two new genera are therefore proposed and a taxonomic account is provided for each of these. The first, Champluviera I.Darbysh., T.F.Daniel & C.A.Kiel, is based primarily on S. populifolia but Chlamydocardia nuda C.B.Clarke (= Justicia tigrina Heine) is also included within this new genus based on shared morphological traits, at least one of which is synapomorphic and restricted to these species. Based on molecular evidence, Champluviera is placed in a well-supported clade of several genera that are together sister to the core Isoglossinae lineage of tribe Justicieae. The genus may be recognised morphologically by the combination of a dense spiciform terminal thyrse with the bracts, bracteoles and calyx lobes all slender and closely resembling one another; a bilabiate corolla lacking a rugula and with intricate speckling or striping on the lips; and, in particular, the putatively synapomorphic trait of anther thecae with broad, flattened, basal appendages that have an irregularly toothed fringe. The second new genus, Kenyacanthus I.Darbysh. & C.A.Kiel, is based on R. ndorensis and is so far thought to be monospecific. It is placed between core Diclipterinae and Monechma Group II within the expanded subtribe Diclipterinae in tribe Justicieae. Kenyacanthus can be recognised morphologically by having the combination of a trailing or procumbent habit; fasciculate inflorescences; bracts, bracteoles and calyces with hyaline margins; a bilabiate corolla with a slender cylindrical tube longer than the limb and with a shallow rugula; stenotribic flowers, with the stamens held against the lower lip; and anthers with only slightly offset thecae that lack appendages.
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