Premise of research. Salvia is one of the most species-rich genera in the world. Its outstanding diversity and subcosmopolitan distribution have prevented the preparation of a modern comprehensive monograph and reevaluation of its classification. As phylogenetic efforts advance to untangle the evolutionary relationships of Salvia, the need for a solid taxonomic footing is increasingly imperative. Accordingly, we present an updated checklist of the species richness and distribution of Salvia subg. Calosphace, which constitutes more than half of the diversity of the genus. Methodology. A preliminary checklist of the species of Salvia subg. Calosphace was compiled through examination of the literature and online databases; this was revised and discussed by the authors in order to retrieve a consensus list. The distribution of each species by country or territory as well as by biome was also recorded from the sources consulted; affinities in composition were visualized with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean based on a dissimilarity matrix (Sørensen’s index). Pivotal results. Salvia subg. Calosphace comprises 580 species; 30 were qualified as unresolved and require further analysis. The countries with the highest species richness are Mexico (295 spp.), Peru (77 spp.), Colombia (60 spp.), Brazil (58 spp.), Guatemala (49 spp.), and Ecuador (41 spp.). The affinity in species composition between countries and between biomes is explained mainly by geographical proximity. Conclusions. The updated list of the species of Salvia subg. Calosphace will help to guide sampling for phylogenetic analyses, enabling the achievement of a more stable and solid phylogenetic hypothesis. At the same time, it is a potentially important tool for underpinning discussions toward a new sectional classification of the lineage.
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