The phytochemical study of the roots, leaves and twigs of Penianthus camerounensis Dekker (Menispermaceae) has led to the isolation and the characterization of 20 compounds. A ceramide, camerounamide (1), and a furoclerodanediterpenoid, camerounin (2), have not been described previously, while the compounds xylopic acid (3), syringaresinol (4), iso-propylmethylcyclohexa-1,4-diol (5), 1-(28-hydroxyoctacosanoyl)glycerol (6), scoparone (7), friedelin (8), friedelanol (9) and betulinic acid (10) are being reported for the first time from the genus Penianthus alongside 10 known compounds (11–20). Chemical structures were determined using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, MS and chemical analysis. Their chemotaxonomic importance is discussed.
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