Shiraiaceae is an important family in Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes), which includes medical fungi and plant pathogens. Two hypocrellin-producing taxa, Shiraia bambusicola and a novel genus Rubroshiraiagen. nov., typified by Rubroshiraia bambusae are treated in this article. Maximum likelihood analysis, generated via RAxML (GTR+G model), using a combined SSU, LSU, TEF1 and RPB2 sequence dataset, shows that Rubroshiraia is close to Shiraia and belongs to the family Shiraiaceae. Descriptions, illustrations and a taxonomic key are provided for the genera in Shiraiaceae. Rubroshiraia morphologically differs from Shiraia in having small and dark ascostromata and filiform ascospores. Production of the ascostromatal metabolites, hypocrellin A and B, were examined by HPLC and spectrophotometer. The content of hypocrellin A and B of specimen HKAS 102255 (R. bambusae) is twice that produced by HKAS 102253 (S. bambusicola). To clarify the relationship between R. bambusae and Hypocrella bambusae, type material of the latter was examined and provided the illustration.
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